The Roman legions stationed in the British Isles build a bridge to cross the River Thames and establish a settlement. London, called Londinium at the time, is founded.
To protect this significant port city in a strategic manner, the Romans fortify it. London Wall defines the perimeter of the city through the end of the Middle Ages.
The Western Roman Empire collapses gradually. The Romans leave the British Isles, and the Bretons are left to cope with Germanic invasions. Londinium is abandoned at the end of the fifth century.
German tribes known as the Ango-Saxons settle near the ancient Roman city to found an important trade centre.
The Vikings increase their raids against the British Isles. London is occupied in 871, and again from 1013.
William, Duke of Normandy, conquers England and is crowned king at Westminster Abbey.
A number of buildings have carried this name before and since. However, for nearly six centuries, London Bridge is the only bridge over the Thames. In 1973, the current London Bridge is built.
After the English Reformation, King Henry XVIII and his court monopolise the majority of London’s religious buildings. International trade develops throughout the 16th century. By the end of the reign of Elizabeth I, the city has 200,000 residents – a substantial number for the time.
The first London stock exchange based on the Anvers model. In 2001, the Royal Exchange building became a well-known shopping centre.
The two events take place one after another: the plague kills one-fifth of the population of London in just a few months, and a large fire destroys a significant part of the city.
In 1750, after decades of opposition, Westminster Bridge is built over the River Thames. Lambeth and Westminster residents need no longer cross the river by boat or take the lengthy detour to London Bridge. In 1769, Blackfriars Bridge is built, and becomes the third bridge to cross the Thames within city limits.
Crowned queen at the age of 18, Victoria reigns for 63 years, until her death in 1901. The Victorian Era is a period of social, economic and technological change, and involves the rapid expansion of the British Empire.
A symbol of the power of the British Empire under Queen Victoria, the Great Exhibition is the first of its kind, and is quickly imitated by the United States and France.
The dramatic increase in population throughout the 19th century leads to the creation of the London Underground, originally called the Metropolitan Railway.
During the Second World War, the German Air Force bombs London (and other English cities) for months, without ever lowering the spirits of the British people.
Succeeding her father King George VI, Elizabeth II is crowned at Westminster Abbey on 6 February 1952. In 2016, she is the longest-reigning British ruler, before Queen Victoria.
Throughout this decade, London is the European capital of the hippie movement, where artists, musicians and youth gather to celebrate the free world.
London hosts the Summer Games for the third time. The facilities built for the occasion accommodate many sporting and musical events, as well as an influential science park.